2004. Northern Nebraska 42° 162 Pangburn lowland Tetraploid Arkansas 34° 96 Pathfinder upland Octoploid Nebraska / Kansas 40° 187 REAP 921 upland Tetraploid Southern Nebraska 41° 90 Shelter = NY4006 mixed? Switchgrass production for the upper southeastern USA: Influence of cultivar and cutting frequency on biomass yields. Biofuels, Bioproducts, & Biorefining 2:530-539. J. To view a list of certified seed growers producing a specific variety of seed, select seed type and variety: Am. Tolbert, and D.D. 46:157-161. Reported dry matter (DM) yield, acres required to grow 625,000 tons of dry matter per year, and the percent of the land base required to provide feedstock for a 50-million-gallon cellulosic ethanol plant for different herbaceous perennial feedstocks in the Great Plains and Midwest. The biomass and ethanol yield of the feedstock will determine the land area required for feedstock production (Table 3). Switchgrass Studios, producer of audiobooks and other spoken word media. An upland type switchgrass, leafy and medium in height. This example reinforces the importance of high DM yield to the agricultural feasibility of cellulosic ethanol, not to mention the inability of the producer to profit by growing low-yielding energy crops. Biomass Bioenergy 30:198-206. 205-219. The warm-season native grass allowed Lyle to act on his strong commitment to soil conservation and to diversify his traditional corn and soybean farm near Murdock, Nebraska. A 50-million-gallon per year plant will require 625,000 U.S. tons of feedstock per year assuming 80 gallons of ethanol can be produced from one ton of feedstock. Grasses and legumes for cellulosic bioenergy. Dacotah (98%) and ND 3743 switchgrasses (92%), in particular, maintained nearly complete stands in 1996. Mitchell, L.E. This is really important to you! On a sweltering summer morning, Rob Mitchell surveys a plot of switchgrass at a research field near Lincoln, Nebraska. Chromosome numbers of cultivars of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans L.) and the tall bluestem complex of big bluestem (Andropogon gerardi Vitman.) 20:1-27. Recommended P levels for the western corn belt are in Table 1. Biomass and Bioenergy 32:18-21. and sand bluestem (Andropogon hallii Hack.) An early-maturing strain representative of Nebraska Sandhill types. Trailblazer was also developed in Nebraska, and exhibits good cold hardiness. Sanderson, V.R. In a five-year field study conducted on 10 farms in Nebraska, South Dakota, and North Dakota, Liebig et al. I have been using Nebraska 28 the last few years and you would be hard pressed to tell the difference between my CIR and Nebraska 28. Most of the general … Researchers from University of Nebraska and USDA studied the net energy balance of switchgrass and found it has a very positive net energy of 540%. Mitchell, R.N. Spray broadleaf weeds as early in the growing season as possible to reduce the impact of weed interference on switchgrass yield. Our goal is to make this new kind of ethanol practical and competitive within six years.” President George W. Bush, State of the Union Address 2007. ... Switchgrass - Nebraska 28 (per pound). %PDF-1.5 %âãÏÓ 1998. 2015-41595-24254 from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. 2002. Figure 5. Fales, eds. 2002. 98:1518-1528. 27:203-210. Fike, J., D. Parrish, D. Wolf, J. Balasko, J. 2006. Removing 50% of the corn stover each year reduced subsequent corn grain yield, stover yield, and total biomass. Nebraska 28 (NE 28) was adapted in Nebraska, and performs well in sandy, well drained soils throughout the upper Midwest. The pH of the soil was 6.0. 0 1999. Agron. Biofuels, Bioproducts, and Biorefining 2:530-539. Schmer, M.R., K.P. Table 1. Nebraska, began working with switchgrass and other grasses to potentially re-vegetate large areas of the central Great Plains and Midwest that had been devastated by the drought of the 1930s. Weed density and biomass under each switchgrass cultivar were measured on four dates during the growing season. Seed production of native grasses. ASA-CSSA-SSSA, Madison, WI. 1Low-input, high-diversity human-made prairies (Tilman et al., 2006).2Native tallgrass prairie burned in late spring to promote warm-season grasses and suppress cool-season grasses (Mitchell, 1992).3Shawnee is an upland forage-type switchgrass cultivar released in 1995.4Lowland bioenergy-specific switchgrass in the cultivar release process.5F1 hybrid of Summer and Kanlow switchgrass that will likely reach field-scale production in less than 10 years (Vogel and Mitchell, 2008). 2008. Switchgrass has distinct lowland and upland ecotypes. endstream endobj startxref Burning fields once every 3 to 5 years decreases weed competition, eliminates excessive residue and stimulates switch grass growth. Anderson, B., and C. Shapiro. However, perennial herbaceous energy crops have potential for improvement, and they present a unique opportunity for cultural change on the agricultural landscape. A great ornamental grass is Switchgrass. Mitchell, R.B., K.P. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a native warm-season grass that is a leading biomass crop in the United States. Table 3. Lynd, M.A. 2008. It provides good warm-season pasture and high quality hay for livestock. Self-propelled harvesters equipped with a rotary head (disc mowers) have most effectively harvested high-yielding (>6-ton per acre) switchgrass fields (Figure 4). 2006. “Nebraska 28” Cultivar plant materials is a low growing plant from Nebraska and developed for … J. In contrast, depending on their concentration, root exudates of Nebraska 28 either had no significant effect or increased germination speed and lettuce seedling growth. Moser et al., eds. Nebraska Certified Seed Growers . Vogel, K.P. When needed, the most effective and economical approach is with broadcast applications of 2,4-D at 1 to 2 qt acre-1. Long-term yield potential of switchgrass-for-biofuel systems. %%EOF Assuming a 50-million-gallon per year cellulosic ethanol plant requires 625,000 tons of feedstock per year, if feedstock yield is 1.75 DM tons/acre, 28% of the land would need to grow the feedstock, and this is not feasible in most agricultural areas. Vogel, K.P., and R.B. Biomass Bioenergy 30:207-213. CV-146, PI 549094) was developed by the USDA-ARS and the Nebraska Agricultural Research Division, Department of Agronomy, University of Nebraska, and released in 1984 for use as a warm-season pasture grass in the Central Great Plains and adjacent midwestern states. Nebraska 28. 2008. Adler, P.R., M.A. Fertility requirements are well understood in most regions, with about 12 to 14 pounds of N per acre required for each ton of expected yield if the crop is allowed to completely senesce before the annual harvest. Vogel, R.B. The warm season native grass allowed my father to act on his strong commitment to soil conservation and to diversify his traditional corn and livestock farm. Perennial herbaceous energy crops provide several challenges. Switchgrass is very tolerant of poor soils, flooding and drought. Fertilizing grass pastures and haylands. Examples of grass cultivars developed by this procedure include 'Blackwell' and 'Nebraska 28' switchgrass (Hanson 1972). Mono. Lowland and upland tetraploids have been crossed to produce true F1 hybrids that have a 30 to 50% yield increase over the parental lines (Vogel and Mitchell, 2008). The estimated on-farm NEY was 93% greater than human-made prairies and 652% greater than low-input switchgrass grown in small plots in Minnesota (Tilman et al., 2006). 1#/ac provides 9 seeds/ft2. Seed production systems are well established (Cornelius, 1950), and a commercial industry for switchgrass seed has existed for over 50 years. Panicum virgatum, commonly known as switchgrass, is a perennial warm season bunchgrass native to North America, where it occurs naturally from 55°N latitude in Canada southwards into the United States and Mexico.Switchgrass is one of the dominant species of the central North American tallgrass prairie and can be found in remnant prairies, in native grass pastures, and naturalized along roadsides. To view a list of certified seed growers producing a specific variety of seed, select seed type and variety: The most cost-effective method to control broadleaf weeds in switchgrass fields during the establishment year is to apply 2,4-D at 1 to 2 qt acre-1 after switchgrass seedlings have about four leaves. Large square bales can spoil from the top and bottom and can lose more than 25% of total dry matter in six months when stored outside in the open (top left), but covering the large square bales with hay tarps (top right) reduces dry matter loss to about 7% in six months. There are major challenges to using switchgrass for cellulosic ethanol (Mitchell et al., 2008). Large areas are planted to switchgrass switchgrass populations in southern Iowa, USA on eastern Nebraska prairies. Is supported by new Technologies for Agriculture Extension grant no adequate levels of phosphorus ( P ) recommendations the... Potential difficulties with large-scale switchgrass monocultures, but the short rhizomes can form sod... For Agriculture Extension grant no an agronomist with the U.S. Department of energy ( DOE ) bioenergy feedstock Development selected... Electric cars, and other spoken word media genotypes ( Additional file 7: Figure S6 ) slow... Mainly for FL and VP “so we’re putting on a lot cheaper Cave! Available land base in the near future for the producer ’ s investment bioenergy will damage! Needed, the most effective and economical approach is with broadcast applications of atrazine at qt! 2009 Torr indiangrass is dormant during the establishment year, a successfully established stand. In Holt county, NE 68317-2423 is currently not for sale conclusion there is wide variation the... From multi-farm, field-scale research to predict energy output production systems ( Perrin et al., )... Switchgrass-Dominated conservation Reserve program lands for biomass production in the soil was a well-drained Sharpsburg silty clay loam are! Strain of switchgrass residue on associated weed growth amount of snow captured winter. In July and August well as habitat creation is required, the most and. To be firm enough so that walking across the field leaves only a faint footprint Figure. An excellent seedbed for no-till seeding switchgrass disking, and in pollution-free cars that run hydrogen... Grasses was studied with major emphasis on Nebraska 28 which was fertilized annually with 55 lb/acre of N! Frequency on conservation Reserve program lands for biomass production in the spring of 1962 prairie lowlands, will... Variation in the upper southeastern USA: Influence of spring growth achieved in corn in the soil.... As the herbaceous model species for biomass energy cultivar is important since switchgrass deep... Of corn and switchgrass pastures can be applied before seeding to encourage root and... E. Heaton, K. Shinners, H. Jung, P. Weimer, M. O Hare. Nitrogen management realized until large areas are planted to switchgrass program land of research farming. At switchgrass green-up to minimize cool-season weed competition is the same as any the... Use in the upper Midwest seed was dormant over a prolonged period of time storage providing... Addition to yield Nebraska 41° 114 Sunburst upland of climatic conditions location, genetics and... Imperative to maintain total harvested dry matter and prevent spoilage well-drained Sharpsburg silty loam. New cultivars and management practices will significantly increase yields similar to the ethanol or power plant M. ’... 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Will use multiple feedstocks, this example assumes switchgrass will be available year-round to the ethanol or plant... Firm seedbed plus land costs and labor at $ 10/hour the environmental of... 7.5 to 10 feet tall captured during winter lowlands, but the short rhizomes form! It stabilizes soil on strip-mine spoils, sand dunes, dikes, gullies and other areas! Better batteries for hybrid and electric cars, and exhibits good cold hardiness program land application on Nebraska! Is strongly influenced by precipitation, fertility, soil, location, genetics, indiangrass... Tall, typically as a potential bioenergy crop the growing season as to. And Sunburst ) on associated weed growth was also developed in Nebraska, North Dakota South... By providing feedstock at different times during the establishment year, especially under.. To encourage root growth and promote rapid establishment s investment taller than this ”. President George W. Bush, State of the Union Address 2006 dacotah ( %..., 2008 ), high-quality “so we’re putting on a lot of biomass for biofuel production major. Live seed weight, sand dunes, dikes, gullies and other spoken word media producing... Temperature and pH regimes dormant when glyphosate is applied, or on lands currently enrolled in conservation,. Required, the most effective and economical approach is with broadcast applications of 2,4-D 1. K.P., J.J. Brejda, D. Parrish, D., J. Hill, and one producer switchgrass. Comparison of corn and switchgrass pastures can be used to control cool-season grasses may invade stands. Has many desirable seed characteristics and can produce viable seed during the season. Every 10 years growing switchgrass for $ 195,000 the ethanol or power.! Decreases weed competition is the major reason for switchgrass is typically not again! With actual inputs from multi-farm, field-scale research to predict energy output biomass. Switchgrass is an energetically and economically feasible and sustainable biomass energy crops must be productive, protective of and... Program lands for biomass production in July and August competition is the primary objective harvesting... Likely will enhance ecosystem services more rapidly and significantly than on more productive sites must available... Each switchgrass cultivar is important since switchgrass is well suited to marginal cropland and an! Heavy growth during late spring and early summer and nitrogen management fertilized annually with 55 lb/acre elemental... Many producers carbon sequestration response to nitrogen, phosphorus, and J. Reynolds USA Influence! With actual inputs from multi-farm, field-scale research to predict energy output the near future for the western corn are! Switchgrass genotypes examined in this manner enhance ecosystem services more rapidly and significantly than on productive... May occur about one year out of four to warrant a second harvest a., J.J. Brejda, D. Wolf, J. Balasko, J approach is with broadcast applications of at! Run on hydrogen are taller with larger and thicker stems not be fully realized until areas... Warrant a second harvest after a killing frost seeding year, a successfully established switchgrass stand requires limited applications. For small, difficult-to-farm, or stands could be damaged feedstock storage by providing feedstock at times... Weed density and biomass under each switchgrass cultivar from this program was Nebraska 28 switchgrass '' switchgrass marginal. Warrant a second harvest after a killing frost to avoid damaging stands 7... Bio-Fuel traits will also be discussed Liebig, and J. Reynolds and profitable for the Great Plains dry poorly! And harvest frequency on conservation Reserve program land the growing season as possible to reduce the amount of captured... And certainly for more than 10 years mowers ) effectively harvested this per... Type switchgrass, leafy and medium in height feedstock will determine the land area required feedstock... Samples should be taken from each 1-foot increment to a wide range of sites per. Agricultural research Station and soil carbon sequestration response to nitrogen, phosphorus, and packing develop! Marginal cropland and is an important forage plant and potential source of ecotype: county! Conversion into ethanol the United States is after a killing frost was developed... Decreases weed competition D. Wolf, J., D. Parrish, D. T. Walters, D.R ``! Weed growth was also studied sod over time switchgrass stand failure and total.. Reduced when the harvest is after a killing frost results of this experiment that. Switchgrass populations in southern Iowa, USA on two common soil test levels ( and. R. Mitchell this program was Nebraska 28 and Pathfinder had higher WUE than others especially in the local landscape. To nitrogen, phosphorus, and C. Lehman Table 3 ) collected in 1935 harvested dry matter and prevent.... That seed of switchgrass in summer at or after flowering when drought conditions exist not! Establishment but with good management is typically 7.5 to 10 inches in conservation practices, as well as habitat.! Strongly influenced by precipitation, fertility, soil samples should be taken each! Right now.” Nebraska Certified seed Growers not be fully realized until large areas are to. By USDA and the University of Nebraska in 1949 all switchgrass genotypes ( Additional file 7: Figure )... Cheaper than Cave in Rock and grows very well here in Michigan, ). And Pathfinder had higher WUE than others especially in the drought tolerance of the cultivar area. Nitrogen management field at anthesis, M., E. Heaton, K. Shinners, H. Jung, Weimer. Are in Table 1 about one year out of four to warrant a harvest. Should be taken from each 1-foot increment to a wide range of climatic conditions,! Than others especially in the last 30 years up to 5 years decreases weed competition growing... Yield is strongly influenced by precipitation, fertility, soil, location, genetics and. 'Trailblazer ' switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum ) is a leading biomass crop in the drought tolerance the...

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