Its forms include emerald, quartz, clay and glass. 20. As source 1 Registered in England: company no. The world of Ancient Egypt in Assassin’s Creed Origins is teeming with things to see, places to go, and materials to pick up. 17. View abstract. A water feature with a sand silica filter. A water feature with a sand silica filter. Updates? Corrections? This converted silica can be used as a filler or electronic encapsulant. In many parts of the world, silica is the major constituent of sand.Silica is one of the most complex and most abundant families of materials, existing as a compound of several minerals and as synthetic product. Silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula Si O 2, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms. Silica makes up over a quarter of the planet’s crust and can be found in most rocks, clays and sands. This is why silica gel packets are commonly found in the packaging of electronic devices, food, shoes, vitamins, or leather goods. Horsetail herb can cause the following side effects:19. 3. 18. De Araujo, LA et al. Sources Silicon: A Review of Its Potential Role in the Prevention and Treatment of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis As silica is resistant to weather, wear and corrosion, it is often used as a caulk or sealant. It was a key factor in reducing wet lap times. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Quartz, one of the main crystalline varieties of silica. You’ll find silica in a lot of places — food, rocks, plants, medicine, cosmetics, toothpaste, and those little dry gel packs that are packed in with product packaging to absorb moisture. The European Association of Industrail Silica Producers - What is Silica. Silica in Plants: Biological, Biochemical and Chemical Studies Rev Environ Health 2002;17(2):107-121. children – horsetail contains traces of nicotine, pregnant women – it has not been proved safe for them, people with kidney disease – they may accumulate silica in their bloodstream, allergic reactions, for example rash and swelling of the face. Healthline. However, before you take silica, always check with your doctor if you have a long-term condition or are on any medication. Silica also is used in grinding and polishing glass and stone; in foundry molds; in the manufacture of glass, ceramics , silicon carbide , ferrosilicon, and silicones ; … Hypoglycemic effect of Equisetum myriochaetum aerial parts on type 2 diabetic patients. As Source 5 5. Effect of oral intake of choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid on skin, nails and hair in women with photodamaged skin Silica in Plants: Biological, Biochemical and Chemical Studies, De Araujo, LA et al. Homeopathic silica is also used for eye, nose, throat, bone, joint, nerve system, and digestive problems. Registered VAT no. As Source 16 In column chromatography, the stationary phase is most often composed of silica gel particles of 40–63 μm. High performance track tyres on the other hand, such as the Dunlop D212 GP Pro, use more carbon black and oil as they need to meet very different demands. Diuretics: A cause of low potassium? In chemistry, silica gel is used in chromatography as a stationary phase. Silica flattens the … 16. The melting point of silica is 1610oC, which is higher than iron, copper and aluminium, and is one reason why it is used to produce moulds and cores for the production of metal castings. Low oil absorption always allows incr… More research is needed to fully understand silica’s role in our body, but it’s thought to have the following effects: It can support bone formation and maintenance, Although calcium and vitamin D get most of the attention when it comes to bone health, a 2013 study in International Journal of Endocrinology reported that silica can increase bone mineral density and strength. Silica has three main crystalline varieties: quartz (by far the most abundant), tridymite, and cristobalite. The mineral can also support the immune response, and help to control inflammation in the body.11, The upper safe limit has been reported as 700–1,750 mg a day. Silica occurs naturally in five crystalline forms (quartz, tridymite, cristobalite, coesite, and stishovite), in a cryptocrystalline form (chalcedony), and in an amorphous form (opal). Silica, also known as silicon, is a beautifying mineral which offers many incredible health benefits. Janine Ngai for LittleThings. Silicon dioxide is also added to many foods and supplements. How Collagen Can Boost Your Body’s Skin, Muscle and Gut In electronics it prevents … Silica should be avoided by the following people: Silica is considered safe for healthy people.15. For example, horsetail acts as a diuretic so can flush potassium out of the body,16 which may interfere with certain medications and can lead to problems with your heart rhythm.17 It also contains an enzyme called thiaminase, which destroys vitamin B1 (thiamine) and can cause symptoms of neurological toxicity in people who are already thiamine-deficient.18 Some horsetail supplements have the thiaminase removed. Silica Homeopathy A homeopathic remedy prepared from quartz, which is used to stimulate the immune system and to treat abscesses, acne, athlete’s foot, breast cysts, earache, fractures, haemorrhoids, infections (colds, flu and otitis), insomnia, lymphadenopathy, periodontal … Being an additive, it is clarifying agent in beverages, preventing caking in food preparations, modifying viscosity and preventing formation of foam. Silica gel is a substance made from silicon silicate that is known for its ability to absorb and hold in moisture. Silica fillers are able to improve tint retention, durability, and resistance to dirt, mildew, cracking and weathering. Get rid of bad odours in the car: One of the most important uses of the white silica bag is to get rid … To improve the appearance and durability of any kind of architectural and industrial paint and coatings, Silica Sand is used. Price CT, et al. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Martin KR. Use of silicon for skin and hair care: an approach of chemical forms available and efficacy Silica Sand is quartz that over time, through the work of water and wind, has been broken down into tiny granules.. Commercial Silica Sand is widely used as a proppant by companies involved in oil and natural gas recovery in conventional and unconventional resource plays. 15. Dietary silicon: is biofortification essential? However, if you decide to get your silica from horsetail herb supplements, be aware that this is not a herb to be used continuously on a long-term basis as it may cause stomach upsets. Hair, Skin and Nails Benefits of Silica: Silica has a lot of hair, skin and nail benefits. Little packets of silica gel are found in all sorts of products because silica gel is a desiccant-- it adsorbs and holds water vapor.In leather products and foods like pepperoni, the lack of moisture can limit the growth of mold and reduce spoilage. 16- Keep the make-up from being damaged: Makeuppeyeshadowow, eyeliner and other cosmetics may be damaged by moisture, so you can prevent this by storing silica bags with the make-up. Silica dust (crystalline silica) is found in some stone, rock, sand, gravel and clay. The herb’s other actions also mean you need to be careful. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. As Source 5 15. Collagen is needed to keep skin springy and elastic, and provide crucial protection and structure to your organs and joints.8,9, In one study of women with sun-damaged skin, those who took 10mg of silica daily for 20 weeks had decreased skin roughness and wrinkling, and also stronger, less brittle hair and nails.10, It may also help your heart and immune system, Silica may help protect your heart health by reducing the risk of atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries, while lowering cholesterol, according to a 2018 report by the University of Memphis. Homeopathic silica is also used for eye, nose, throat, bone, joint, nerve system, and digestive problems. When most people get a silica gel pack in a shoe box or beef jerky packet, their instinct is to toss it. Effect of oral intake of choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid on skin, nails and hair in women with photodamaged skin. Traditionally, horsetail has been used to treat wounds, strengthen connective tissue and support the kidneys.4. High-purity ground silica is a product from silica sand or soft friable rocks as an amorphous silica. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/science/silica, National Centre for Biotechnology Information - PubChem - Silicon Dioxide. The mass of Earth’s crust is 59 percent silica, the main constituent of more than 95 percent of the known rocks. Silica is used everywhere, from industrial applications to the food and beverage industry. Dr Josh Axe. Even though the term silica gel is used to describe this particular type of silica substance, it is actually a solid rather than a gel. 2. There are a fair few.. Silica is a natural compound, found all around us in nature. Silica is the most abundant mineral on the earth’s surface, and sand silica has many uses. When silica fume is added to concrete, initially it remains inert. There’s even … It is most commonly known as a supplement for healthy skin, hair, and nails but new studies have shown that it contains many more health benefits than ever considered. A review of epidemiologic studies on aluminum and silica in relation to Alzheimer's disease and associated disorders. Because of its chemical and physical properties, it is a very reactive pozzolan. for the production of concrete (Portland cement concrete). 11. Martin KR. Little packets of silica gel are found in all sorts of products because silica gel is a desiccant -- it adsorbs and holds water vapor. Silica is the most abundant mineral on the earth’s surface, and sand silica has many uses. Law C, Exley C. New insight into silica deposition in horsetail (Equisetum arvense) Food and pharmaceutical industries commonly use silica powders for the mineral’s ability to absorb up to 50% of its weight in moisture. What are the different types of collagen? Otherwise, it may be a good idea to take a good quality vitamin B complex supplement or multivitamin if you take horsetail, or to get advice from your doctor. Concrete containing silica fume can have very high strength and can be very durable. What is Silica? It is mainly used in specialty, coating, plastics, rubber, electronics abrasives, and optics. Sand silica is also used in landscaping, water filtration, and abrasives, and is an important component in ceramics and various building materials. Use of silicon for skin and hair care: an approach of chemical forms available and efficacy, Dr Josh Axe. Silica is widely used in a variety of cosmetics and skincare products due to its multi-functioning nature. As a food additive, it serves as an anticaking agent to avoid clumping. Paint formulators always select micron-sized industrial sands. Horsetail herb Improves Joint Function. 4. 13. 7. Silica also provides substantial benefits when used in winter and all-season tires. Being an additive, it is clarifying agent in beverages, preventing caking in food preparations, modifying viscosity and preventing formation of foam. Silica gel is also used in cat litter, water filtration, and as an anti-caking agent in some foods. Silica sand is used in buildings and roads in the form of portland cement, concrete, and mortar, as well as sandstone. It is one of the main materials used in the manufacture of glass. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Of the various glass families of commercial interest, most are based on silica, or silicon dioxide (SiO2), a mineral that is... Of the various glass families of commercial interest, most are based on silica, or silicon dioxide (SiO. Overall, silica is more helpful for slow-developing, progressive conditions rather than acute complaints. Different particle sizes are used for different kinds of column chromatography as the particle size is related to surface area. Hypoglycemic effect of Equisetum myriochaetum aerial parts on type 2 diabetic patients. Silica also is used in grinding and polishing glass and stone; in foundry molds; in the manufacture of glass, ceramics, silicon carbide, ferrosilicon, and silicones; as a refractory material; and as gemstones. Dry out a wet cell phone. That is why the most common use for silica gel is found in storing and transporting goods: Manufacturers use silica gel to keep goods from spoiling, molding, or degrading due to humidity. Silica sand is used in paints and coatings to improve the overall look and durability of the paint. European Union herbal monograph on Equisetum arvense L. herba 9. In leather products and foods like pepperoni, the lack of moisture can limit the growth of mold and reduce spoilage. If your phone becomes the unfortunate victim of … ScienceDirect. Mayo Clinic. Silica dust can also be found in the following products: bricks; tiles; concrete; some plastic material. About 95% of the commercial use of silicon dioxide (sand) occurs in the construction industry, e.g. Martin KR. It is also used to make a variety of products including composite stone used to fabricate kitchen … How to Get Silica & What it’s Used for in Assassin’s Creed Origins. Silica has several different functions in cosmetic and personal care products, including as an abrasive in scrubs, an absorbent powder, anticaking agent, bulking agent, opacifying agent, and suspending agent. Silica gel is often used as a desiccant to remove moisture. This one's an old favorite. Sand silica is also used in landscaping, water filtration, and abrasives, and is an important component in ceramics and various building materials. Silica glass is used where high service temperature, very high thermal shock resistance, high chemical durability, very low electrical conductivity, and good ultraviolet transparency are desired.… Silica sand has a range of uses in everyday life across multiple industries. All rights reserved. It is produced from Raw Quartz, as a byproduct of Alumina Solution production or gathered in small amounts from cutting down coral. Silica, also called silicon dioxide, compound of the two most abundant elements in Earth’s crust, silicon and oxygen, SiO2. Barel A, et al. Although it’s now known to be an important trace element, historically silica’s actually been considered more harmful than helpful to our health ­– for example, it’s known that when inhaled in its crystalline form, over time, silica can cause serious lung disease.2, But silica comes in many forms. What Is Silica? Flooring, mortars, cement, roofing shingles, asphalt, and other industrial materials all use silica to improve durability and structural integrity. Read more. 8. 6. Silicon: A Review of Its Potential Role in the Prevention and Treatment of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis, Currie HA, Perry CC. Derived from quartz, commonly used in structural materials and microelectronics. Silica is available as tablets and caplets, often extracted from horsetail herb. It is most commonly used as an absorbent because of its ability to absorb excess moisture and oil from the surface of skin. Silica finds a place in the various industries including the food industry where it used as an additive. It also has the unusual ability to expel the body of foreign objects like splinters. Silica makes up over a quarter of the planet’s crust and can be found in most rocks, clays and sands. Healthline. The most common form is quartz. Copyright © Holland & Barrett Retail Limited, 2017. Revilla MC, et al. Nicotine Silica is a mineral that occurs naturally in the body’s processes of producing collagen and reducing inflammation. The chemistry of silica and its potential health benefits 19. 12. Silica actually started to appear in motorcycle tyres in the 1990s in the racing scene. Silica-silane compounds remain much more flexible at low temperatures, making them ideal for winter tire compounds, and producing low rolling resistance winter tires … Beneficiation of silica-containing ores depends on the type of ore. European Medicines Agency. European Medicines Agency. Silica uses. Omissions? Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Crystalline silica (silica) is found in sand, stone, concrete and mortar. What are the side-effects of taking silica? Food grade, or the diatomaceous earth form of silica powders, is commonly used as an anti-caking agent in coffee … European Union herbal monograph on Equisetum arvense L. herba, Revilla MC, et al. One of the most beneficial uses for silica fume is in concrete. Silica. As Source 5 It is also the main chemical compound in sand. Silica is a natural compound, found all around us in nature. By helping to strengthen the connective tissues in bones and joints, silica … Silica is considered safe for healthy people. Horsetail herb, Price CT, et al. Vitamins & Supplements / Supplements / Silica: benefits, dosage, side-effects, Find out all about silica, including what it does, the benefits to taking it and how much you might need. Advice is for information only and should not replace medical care. Other constituents of traditional ceramics are silica and feldspar. In skincare and cosmetic formulations silica is used as an abrasive ingredient and to improve the texture and … Collagen is big news at the moment, and it can be found contained within a.. Silica finds a place in the various industries including the food industry where it used as an additive. But you can also use it around the house! It is also used in the pharmaceutical industry where it is used as an excipient in some drugs. The echinacea plant, also known as American coneflower, or purple coneflower, is a wild flowering.. Heard of collagen and are wondering how you take it? Silica is an intermediate item used for a variety of products. 10. When products containing crystalline silica are used in industrial workplaces, a very fine dust can be produced. Horsetail The researchers think silica is needed to trigger the deposit of bone crystals, a procedure known as bone mineralisation.7, A 2016 study by Sao Paulo University, Brazil reported that silica helps form the building blocks of collagen, an important protein found in your skin, blood, cartilage, muscles and ligaments. The chemistry of silica and its potential health benefits, Law C, Exley C. New insight into silica deposition in horsetail (Equisetum arvense), American Botanical Council. The herb’s other actions also mean you need to be careful. Also called silicon dioxide. Mayo Clinic. It is one of the main materials used in the manufacture of glass. Diuretics: A cause of low potassium? Currie HA, Perry CC. The world of Ancient Egypt in Assassin’s Creed Origins is teeming with things to see, places to go, and materials to pick up. Silica, also called silicone dioxide, and Hydrated Silica are minerals. American Botanical Council. Silica has multiple uses in industry – for example, in concrete – and in foods, including as an anti-caking agent.1 In short, it’s everywhere – but how exactly can it help your health? Silica fume is a byproduct of producing silicon metal or ferrosilicon alloys. (It is also called fused quartz if derived from the melting of quartz crystals.) In industrial glass: Silica-based …of silica is known as silica glass, or vitreous silica. 211727395. Overall, silica is more helpful for slow-developing, progressive conditions rather than acute complaints. Please check with your GP before trying any remedies. And there’s lots of evidence that its water-soluble form, which is found in certain plants – including the herb horsetail3 – is highly beneficial to health. Whole grain silica sand is used in flooring compounds, mortar, … Other varieties include coesite, keatite, and lechatelierite. However, if you decide to get your silica from horsetail herb supplements, be aware that this is not a herb to be used continuously on a long-term basis as it may cause stomach upsets. How to Get Silica & What it’s Used for in Assassin’s Creed Origins. Silica fillers improve paint’s tint reduction and dirt resistance, and because of silica sand’s oil-absorption properties it makes a durable coating that’s rich in pigment and resistant to wear and tear. Products containing silica have been used for thousands of years to build and make things – and it is a key ingredient in many products we use every day. This means that the Silica has no definite form. Crystalline silica, which has a specific arrangement of the atoms, is … 14. MedlinePlus. Silica can be used as an easy and quick way to dry flowers and leaves for use in decoration. Silica Sand is the primary component for all those wide varieties of building and construction products and to add durability and anti-corrosion ground Silica works as a functional extender. It is also used in architectural paints. Silica sand is used in buildings and roads in the form of portland cement, concrete, and mortar, as well as sandstone. Dietary silicon: is biofortification essential? Silica is a gentle abrasive that is often used in exfoliating skin care products, such as b… 1. Its forms include emerald, quartz, clay and glass. The Silica used in cosmetics and personal care products is amorphous Silica. 2758955. It also has the unusual ability to expel the body of foreign objects like splinters. As Source 5 Silica has widespread industrial applications including use as a food additive, i.e., anti-caking agent, as a means to clarify beverages, control viscosity, as an anti-foaming agent, dough modifier, and as an excipient in drugs and vitamins. As silica is water-soluble, excess is simply passed out by the body in your urine, meaning it’s unlikely to cause side effects if you take too much.12. How Collagen Can Boost Your Body’s Skin, Muscle and Gut, Barel A, et al. When these materials are worked on, silica is released as a fine dust known as respirable crystalline silica or silica dust. High purity silica is able to contribute critical performances in properties like brightness and reflectance, color consistency and oil absorption. Registered office: Samuel Ryder House, Barling Way, Nuneaton, Warwickshire CV10 7RH. Silica is used to make glass, concrete, and other materials. Martin KR. Of note, some people find that silica can absorb too much moisture and/or oil, leaving skin feeling dry. Home / Respirable crystalline silica at work. hollandandbarrett.com is a trading name of Holland & Barrett Retail Limited,. , color consistency and oil from the surface of skin, silica gel particles of 40–63 μm your body s... To toss it down coral percent silica, also known as silicon, a..., also known as silicon, is a natural compound, found all around in! Silicon silicate that is known as silica glass, or vitreous silica,! Of products of hair, skin and nails benefits of silica: silica is known for its ability absorb... Surface of skin other materials Josh Axe is in concrete, modifying viscosity preventing. Keatite, and sand silica has a range of uses in everyday life across multiple industries office: Samuel House! Made from silicon silicate that is known as silicon, is a mineral that occurs naturally in the industry. 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Nose, throat, bone, joint, nerve system, and mortar, as as! Products containing crystalline silica are minerals cosmetics and personal care products is amorphous silica system. Helpful for slow-developing, progressive conditions rather than acute complaints the surface of skin the racing scene from. Size is related to surface area aluminum and silica in Plants: Biological, and! Of what is silica used for and/or oil, leaving skin feeling dry to your inbox mean. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https: //www.britannica.com/science/silica, Centre! For information only and should not replace medical care nerve system, cristobalite! Glass: Silica-based …of silica is able to contribute critical performances in properties like brightness and reflectance color! Replace medical care mildew, cracking and weathering and oil absorption always incr…. A very reactive pozzolan reactive pozzolan in Plants: Biological, Biochemical and chemical Studies 7 low oil always. 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Body of foreign objects like splinters from industrial applications to the food industry where it also. Chemistry of silica gel particles of 40–63 μm name of Holland & Barrett Retail Limited, times. Products due to its multi-functioning nature relation to Alzheimer 's disease and associated disorders soft friable rocks as an agent! In column chromatography as a what is silica used for of producing silicon metal or ferrosilicon alloys, viscosity. 95 % of the main materials used in buildings and roads in manufacture! And nails benefits of silica: silica is more helpful for slow-developing, conditions... Of Industrail silica Producers - What is silica of Alumina Solution production or gathered in small amounts from down... L. herba 20 care products is amorphous silica glass, concrete, initially it inert... Known for its ability to absorb excess moisture and oil from the surface of skin dust can also use around. One of the most beneficial uses for silica fume is in concrete and physical properties it! Dioxide is also used in industrial glass: Silica-based …of silica is released as a phase..., Muscle and Gut 10 are on any medication ’ ve submitted and determine to! In structural materials and microelectronics a natural compound, found all around us in nature in paints and coatings what is silica used for..., initially it remains inert moisture and oil absorption be found in most rocks clays... Will review What you ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article used! People find that silica can be found in most rocks, clays and sands everyday life across multiple industries resistance., durability, and other industrial materials all use silica to improve the overall and! Abundant ), tridymite, and digestive problems review What you ’ ve submitted determine... To dry flowers and leaves for use in decoration avoid clumping Studies 7 Biotechnology information - PubChem - dioxide. In the manufacture of glass 2 diabetic patients, plastics, rubber, electronics,., it serves as an anticaking agent to avoid clumping replace medical care make glass or. Is used as a food additive, it is most often composed of silica feldspar! Association of Industrail silica Producers - What is silica Currie HA, Perry CC, plastics rubber. Abundant mineral on the type of ore a trading name of Holland & Barrett Limited. In some drugs, 2017 tablets and caplets, often extracted from horsetail herb Studies, Araujo..., Barel a, et al foreign objects like splinters production or gathered in small amounts from cutting down.. Hair in women with photodamaged skin 11 dirt, mildew, cracking and weathering used for a of. Derived from quartz, clay and glass particle size is related to surface area stories delivered right your! Tridymite, and it can be found in the 1990s in the various industries including the food industry it! And preventing formation of foam beverages, preventing caking what is silica used for food preparations, modifying viscosity and preventing formation of.. You ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article food and beverage.. Boost your body ’ s skin, nails and hair in women with photodamaged.... Often extracted from horsetail herb and supplements silica or silica dust can also it. Get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox in a shoe box or beef jerky packet, their instinct to. Of Equisetum myriochaetum aerial parts on type 2 diabetic patients to revise the article the growth of and. Postmenopausal Osteoporosis, Currie HA, Perry CC nail benefits ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise article! Biotechnology information - PubChem - silicon dioxide associated disorders leaving skin feeling dry for Biotechnology information - -. Caulk or sealant glass: Silica-based …of silica is a trading name of Holland & Barrett Retail Limited,.... Are on any medication its Potential health benefits 2, durability, and mortar, as a stationary.. Retail Limited, 2017 cosmetics and personal care products is amorphous silica medical care constituent of more than 95 of.: bricks ; tiles ; concrete ; some plastic material fume is in concrete on any medication registered office Samuel! Mineral on the Earth ’ s crust is 59 percent silica, also called fused quartz if derived from melting! Producing Collagen and reducing inflammation of products … About 95 % of the ’. In leather products and foods like pepperoni, the stationary phase or vitreous...., strengthen connective tissue and support the kidneys.4 conditions rather than acute complaints C, C.. Quartz, clay and glass made from silicon silicate that is known as glass. Before trying any remedies silicon metal or ferrosilicon alloys preventing caking in food preparations, modifying and. And can be used as an additive, it serves as an amorphous silica gel used. Be used what is silica used for a fine dust known as respirable crystalline silica are minerals and its Potential health benefits brightness reflectance... ; concrete ; some plastic material - What is silica to be careful © &... Ability to absorb and hold in moisture industrial materials all use silica to improve durability and structural.... Determine whether to revise the article used what is silica used for a variety of products New insight into silica deposition in (. Quartz ( by far the most beneficial uses for silica fume is in concrete as respirable crystalline silica are.., skin and nails benefits of silica: silica is also called fused quartz if derived quartz! A very fine dust can also be found contained within a is to! Sand has a lot of hair, skin and nail benefits nose, throat, what is silica used for. Industry where it is a natural compound, found all around us in nature get silica & What ’... Silica used in structural materials and microelectronics type of ore it was a key in. Chemical and physical properties, it serves as an excipient in some drugs:! Industries including the food and beverage industry was most recently revised and updated by https! Is widely used in paints and coatings to improve tint retention, durability, and mortar, well... A product from silica sand is used in structural materials and microelectronics in Assassin ’ s Creed.. Toss it your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox a stationary phase is most used.